If he had willingly or unwillingly remained content with Nazr Muhammad, then Urdu literature would have been deprived of the progressive poetry of N. Rashid today. In the very beginning, that is, immediately after the cutting and cropping, he must have felt some estrangement and alienation from his name, but now he has grown so accustomed to it that if someone were to call him Nazr Muhammad, he would think some other person was being called.
Progressive poetry and traditionalist, conservative Aurangzeb!? His original name was Sanaullah, the meaning of which is clear [praise of Allah].
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He suggests that progressive writers stand in anxious and sometimes ambivalent relation to religious identity, and obscure the markedly religious elements of their names e. Sanaullah adopts a marked Hindu feminine name that evokes in modern readers the mystical poet associated with the Vaishnava Bhakti movement, Mira Bai. Here, the progressive idea seems to be that to juxtapose titles associated with Western education alongside religious names amounts to an aesthetic contradiction in terms.
Manto gives a number of examples that suggest that obscuring religious identity goes hand in hand with Westernization and modernity. Ahmad Shah Bukhari, Manto tells us, only feels right in the form of A. Muhammad Din Taseer. In May , the All India Progressive Writers Association met in Bhivandi, near Bombay, to discuss the status of progressive literature and progressive writers in post-war India.
According to Ali Sardar Jafri, a leader of the organization, just after Partition, a number of progressive authors disassociated themselves from the movement and chose seclusion over potential political and governmental repercussions, while others broke with progressive principles and aligned themselves with conservative politics.
Rights of Parents in Urdu | Islamic Pictures Blog
Jafri names the aforementioned Dr. It is therefore not difficult to see how the issues of freedom of expression, progressive aesthetics, and naming that Manto raises in Bitter, Sour, Sweet connected to the increasingly constrictive and polarized intellectual and creative environment in which he was writing.
Manto begins with a discussion of the biopic Puran Bhagat, a film that tells the story of prince Puran, who is rescued from a death sentence by the mystic Gorakhnath and leads an army against a power-hungry general before returning to the life of an ascetic. The film industry immediately wondered if the Hindu community would object to a Muslim playing the part.
He also suggests a cause-and-effect relationship between adopting a Hindu stage name and popular acceptance in the Indian film industry. He mentions the actress Tajour also spelled Tajvar , better known by her stage name, Veena. Before the Partition of India, there used to be a Vidhava Singh [lit.
Manto commends, perhaps ironically, the Sikh community for its steadfastness, and seems to admire Sikhs who, in contrast to the aforementioned Muslim actors and authors, are unwilling to change their names. He begins by praising Sardar Kharak Singh. Manto tells us that it has been a long time since Kharak [lit. Still, Manto continues the pun one must applaud the fact that the idea to change his kharkhar -ing [creaking; rattling] name has not occurred to him. Manto then satirizes the kind of progressivism that seeks to transcend region or community as he imagines that even if Sikhs named Lahora Singh, Peshavara Singh, Pahavara Singh all of whose names are geographically marked became progressive poets, they would not change their names.
He concludes the essay:. New names are not to be found despite extensive and exhaustive search. My thought is that Tamancha Jan has blazed an entirely new trail.
In this case, that language is the terminology of war and the rhetoric of violence. In this corpus of literature, and in the Shia community in South Asia in general, the name Yazid is detested and associated with filth and impurity. Indeed, the name Yazid typically functions as a metonymy for un-Islamic and tyrannical rule, and is contrasted with the righteous Husain, whose martyrdom symbolizes the rescuing of Islam from the unrighteous.
The refrain resonates with Karimdad, who wishes to put Partition and its violence behind him and move on with his life. Some readers interpret the name as meaning life or living. Karimdad is enamored of Jinan, and tells her that she looks more beautiful now that she is pregnant. Jinan is embarrassed, and covers her stomach.
This affects Jinan, who does not feel she can mourn for her lost loved ones in front of him. But the mourning rituals of Muharram offer a chance for both to commemorate the dead in their own ways. Later, Jinan discusses the matter with Karimdad. Karimdad acknowledges hearing the rumors, but quickly changes the subject to the child.
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Jinan tells him that Bakhto Dai expects the child to be born in ten days. Karimdad begins to celebrate, but Jinan scolds him and insists that a Karbala is coming to the village.
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Just one of the villagers, Chaudhari Nathu, is preparing to cast a barrage of insults and curses on India, Karimdad stands up and tells the villagers not to curse anyone. When confronted, he explains that although it seems to him that Indians are his enemies, one should not curse or insult them. When the villagers ask him for such a response, he refuses to speak on behalf of the entire community.
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Rather, he insists that responses require time, as does the process of stopping or changing the course of a river. By contrast, hurling insults and venting rage take only a minute. Once one has done so, one can only expect enmity in response. Karimdad addresses the villagers:. Set up parks and gardens for your amusement and pleasure? He continues:. Just stop and think for a minute. When a wrestler girds his loins and enters the ring, he has the right to use any move. Why do you forget that they are not only our enemy? Are we not their enemies?
If we had the choice, we, too, would have stopped their grain and water… But now that they can and are about to do so, we will have to think of some defensive move. What is the point of casting useless abuses? If he could, he would mix poison into every drop of your water.
Rights of Parents and Relatives
Bakhto Dai greets him with smiles and congratulations at the door. He looks at the child with loving, proud eyes, and addresses it as Yazid. That one, he closed off the water supply.
This one will open it up. The characters in the story debate enmity between Pakistan and Hindustan, not Muslims and Hindus. The villagers call Hindustan Yazid because Hindustan threatens to shut off the water supply and bring Karbala to their village. Still, such characteristics do not amount to a desire to abandon religious identity altogether, and, as mentioned above, religious and sectarian identities are not explicitly discussed in the story.
The second ignores the looming threat of international violence to which the story responds. It proposes unconventional uses of language and unconventional naming practices as forms of resistance. Just as he breaks convention by cursing his child and calling him a thief, a son-of-a-pig, and, ultimately, by naming him Yazid, so too does he break convention and socially sanctioned practice as he calls himself a great big pig, refuses to mourn the dead or curse Hindustan and Hindustanis.
The story of Shakuntala appears in the Mahabharata and is famously told in a Sanskrit play by Kalidasa fl. Shakuntala is orphaned as a child and found by a rishi, who raises her in an ashram in a forest.
The king Dushyant visits the forest on a hunting expedition. Shakuntala and he conceive a son Bharat. Dushyant gives Shakuntala a ring and leaves the forest. Soon a curse is placed on Shakuntala that Dushyant will forget her unless he sees proof of their union. Shakuntala has the ring that Dushyant gave her as proof, but on her way to join the king at his palace, she loses it.
This leads to a series of complications, but Dushyant eventually sees the ring, remembers Shakuntala, and Bharat eventually inherits his kingdom. As is the case in many of the stories in the collection, filmmaker Zaigham sets the scene as if she were writing camera cues. My translation leaves the language as it appears in the Urdu in order to preserve some of the dramatic changes in verb tense and syntactical ambiguities present in the original. The presence of English words e. Dushyant ultimately displaces his archetypal fantasy onto a supermodel of the same name:.
A pool full of limpid water in which golden, silver, darling little fishes were swimming about. Gently, lazily, white and pink lotuses were blooming; beads of water were sparkling like diamonds on their round green leaves.
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