On the other side are those who call themselves 'pro-choice' or 'supporters of abortion rights', and who regard intentional abortion as acceptable in some circumstances. People feel particularly strongly about abortion because there is no way of getting any opinion from the foetus - the potential 'victim' - about the issue as there is when considering euthanasia , and because the foetus can easily be portrayed as an entirely innocent and defenceless being.
The problems can be restated in terms of the sort of decisions that pregnant women and their doctors have to face:. If we follow this argument and accept that a foetus has a right to live, then we face part two of the problem:. Search term:. Read more.
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Find out more about page archiving. Ethics guide. Pro 6 Modern abortion procedures are safe and do not cause lasting health issues such as cancer and infertility. The study also found that "pregnancy-related complications were more common with childbirth than with abortion.
Pro 7 Women who receive abortions are less likely to suffer mental health problems than women denied abortions. A peer-reviewed study comparing the mental health of women who received abortions to women denied abortions found that women who were denied abortions "felt more regret and anger" and "less relief and happiness" than women who had abortions. Pro 8 Abortion gives pregnant women the option to choose not to bring fetuses with profound abnormalities to full term. Some fetuses have such severe disorders that death is guaranteed before or shortly after birth.
These include anencephaly, in which the brain is missing, and limb-body wall complex, in which organs develop outside the body cavity. Even in the case of nonfatal conditions, such as Down syndrome, parents may be unable to care for a severely disabled child. Pro 9 Women who are denied abortions are more likely to become unemployed, to be on public welfare, to be below the poverty line, and to become victims of domestic violence.
A University of California at San Francisco study found that women who were turned away from abortion clinics because they had passed the gestational limit imposed by the clinic were three times more likely to be below the poverty level two years later than women who were able to obtain abortions.
The same study found that women unable to obtain abortions were more likely to stay in a relationship with an abusive partner than women who had an abortion, and were more than twice as likely to become victims of domestic violence. Pro 10 Reproductive choice protects women from financial disadvantage. Many women who choose abortion don't have the financial resources to support a child.
Pro 11 A baby should not come into the world unwanted. Having a child is an important decision that requires consideration, preparation, and planning. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment stated that unintended pregnancies are associated with birth defects, low birth weight, maternal depression, increased risk of child abuse, lower educational attainment, delayed entry into prenatal care, a high risk of physical violence during pregnancy, and reduced rates of breastfeeding.
Pro 12 Abortion reduces welfare costs to taxpayers. Also, since many women seeking late-term abortions are economically disadvantaged, their children are likely to require welfare assistance. Pro 13 Abortion reduces crime. According to a study co-written by Freakonomics co-author Steven D. Levitt, PhD, and published in the peer-reviewed Quarterly Journal of Economics , "legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions.
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Because "women who have abortions are those most at risk to give birth to children who would engage in criminal activity," and women who had control over the timing of childbearing were more likely to raise children in optimal environments, crime is reduced when there is access to legal abortion. Pro 14 Abortion is justified as a means of population control. Although many religious groups oppose abortion, the United Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church, and the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations are all officially pro-choice.
In Exodus , the crime of causing a woman to miscarry is treated as a property crime, whereas killing the woman is considered murder and is punished with the death penalty. But I refuse to impose it on equally devout Christians and Muslims and Jews, and I just refuse to impose that on others I do not believe that we have a right to tell other people that -- women they can't control their body.
Con 1 Abortion is murder. The killing of an innocent human being is wrong, even if that human being has yet to be born. Unborn babies are considered human beings by the US government. The federal Unborn Victims of Violence Act , which was enacted "to protect unborn children from assault and murder," states that under federal law, anybody intentionally killing or attempting to kill an unborn child should "be punished Con 2 Life begins at conception, so unborn babies are human beings with a right to life.
Upon fertilization, a human individual is created with a unique genetic identity that remains unchanged throughout his or her life.
- The Washington Post
This individual has a fundamental right to life, which must be protected. Jerome Lejeune, the French geneticist who discovered the chromosome abnormality that causes Down syndrome, stated that "To accept the fact that after fertilization has taken place a new human has come into being is no longer a matter of taste or opinion The human nature of the human being from conception to old age is not a metaphysical contention, it is plain experimental evidence. Con 3 Fetuses feel pain during the abortion procedure.
Maureen Condic, PhD, Associate Professor of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Adjunct Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Utah School of Medicine, explains that the "most primitive response to pain, the spinal reflex," is developed by eight weeks gestation, and adds that "There is universal agreement that pain is detected by the fetus in the first trimester. And I believe it will be severe and excruciating pain. Nathanson, MD, the late abortion doctor who renounced his earlier work and became a pro-life activist, stated that when an abortion is performed on a week-old fetus, "We see [in an ultrasound image] the child's mouth open in a silent scream This is the silent scream of a child threatened imminently with extinction.
One reason for these exceptions is to eliminate from consideration cases whose ethical analysis should be controversial detailed for clear-headed opponents of abortion. Such cases include abortion after rape and abortion during the first fourteen days after conception when there is an argument that the fetus is not definitely an individual. Another reason for making these exceptions allow for those cases in which the permissibility of abortion is compatible with the argument of this essay.
ABORTION ESSAY WRITING GUIDE
Such cases include abortion when continuation of a pregnancy endangers a woman's life and when the fetus is anencephalic. When I wrongness of abortion in this essay, a reader she presume the above qualifications. Thus, as is standard on the literature on this subject, I eliminanate spontaneous abortions from consideration. I mean by a fetus a developing human being from. Thus, as is standard, I call embryos and zygotes, fetuses.
Abortion : Abortion And Abortion Essay
The argument of this essay will establish that abortion is wrong for the same reason as killing a reader of this essay is wrong. I shall just assume, rather than establish, that killing you is seriously wrong. I shall make no attempt to offer a complete ethics of killing. Finally, I shall make no attempt to resolve some very fundamental and difficult general philosophical issues into which this analysis of the ethics of abortion might lead.
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Symmetries that emerge from the analysis of the major arguments on either side of the abortion debate may explain why the abortion debate seems intractable. Consider the following standard anti-abortion argument: Fetuses are both human and alive. Humans have the right to life.
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Therefore, fetuses have the right to life. Of course, women have the right to control their own bodies, but the right to life overrides the right of a woman to control her own body.
Therefore, abortion is wrong. Judith Thomson has argued that even if one grants for the sake of argument only that fetuses have the right to life, this argument fails. Thomson invites you to imagine that you have been connected while sleeping, bloodstream to bloodstream, to a famous violinist.
The violinist, who suffers from a rare blood disease, will die if disconnected. Thomson argues that you surely have the right to disconnect yourself. She appeals to our intuition that having to lie in bed with a violinist for an indefinite period is too much for morality to demand. She supports this claim by noting that the body being used is your body, not the violinist's body. She distinguishes the right to life, which the violinist clearly has, from the right to use someone else's body when necessary to preserve one's life, which it is not at all obvious the violinist has.
Because the case of pregnancy is like the case of the violinist, one is no more morally obligated to remain attached to a fetus than to remain attached to the violinist. It is widely conceded that one can generate from Thomson's vivid case the conclusion that abortion is morally permissible when a pregnancy is due to rape Warren, , p. But this is hardly a general right to abortion. Do Thomson's more general theses generate a more general right to an abortion?
Thomson draws our attention to the fact that in a pregnancy, although a fetus uses a woman's body as a life-support system, a pregnant woman does not use a fetus's body as a life-support system. However, an opponent of abortion might draw our attention to the fact that in an abortion the life that is lost is the fetus's, not the woman's. This symmetry seems to leave us with a stand-off. Thomson points out that a fetus's right to life does not entail its right to use someone else's body to preserve its life.
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